Did President Obama Choose Ed Boyden Of M.I.T Over Ben Carson Of John Hopkins
By Brittany Boutte on April 03, 2013
New York City, NY ( AP ) Breast Cancer Genomics using Optogenetics and Dopaminergic pathways has the investors on Wall Street singing with joy. In the coming days The Obama Administration is getting ready to announce that they are going to ask for funding for ( B.A.M Brain Activity Mapping ). Barron's Medical Journal Ask the CEO Rose Conrad of Sam Houston Biotech Software a Houston base Biotech Engineering Company, what should we make of this major announcement coming down the biotech pipeline.
Conrad Replied and said you have just asked the trillion dollar question. Brain Activity Mapping in going to be a Trillion dollar initiative that is going to change how we diagnose and treat diseases. The big news about this science is that one of the main benefactors is going to be Breast Cancer.
One of the single most horrific characteristic of breast cancer is Lymph node invasion. Lymph node invasion is one of the most powerful clinical factors in cancer prognosis. However, molecular level signatures of their correlation are remaining poorly understood. A new approach, monotonically expressed gene analysis (MEGA), to correlate transcriptional patterns of lymph node invasion related genes with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. RESULTS Using MEGA, we scored all genes with their transcriptional patterns over progression levels of lymph node invasion from 278 non-metastatic breast cancer samples. Applied on 65 independent test data, our gene sets of top 20 scores (positive and negative correlations) showed significant associations with prognostic measures such as cancer metastasis, relapse and survival. The method showed better accuracy than conventional two class comparison methods. We could also find that expression patterns of some genes are strongly associated with stage transition of pathological T and N at specific time. Additionally, some pathways including T-cell immune response and wound healing serum response are expected to be related with cancer progression from pathway enrichment and common motif binding site analyses of the inferred gene sets. CONCLUSIONS By applying MEGA, we can find possible molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer, supported by evidences of feasible gene expression patterns and significant results of meta-analysis tests.
Optogenetics: Lighting up the brain When you electrically stimulate one part of the brain, a lot of nerve cells called neurons get hit at once. In order to understand what particular kinds of neurons do, there needs to be a way to target them separately
Dopaminergic pathways are neural pathways in the brain which transmit the neurotransmitter dopamine from one region of the brain to another.
The neurons of the dopaminergic pathways have axons which run the entire length of the pathway. The neurons' soma produce the enzymes that synthesize dopamine, and they are then transmitted via the projecting axons to their synaptic destinations, where most of the dopamine is produced. Dopaminergic nerve cell bodies in such areas as the substantia nigra tend to be pigmented due to the presence of the black pigment melanin. The statement in that movie that said " Do Not Look In To The Light " is now going to say " Look in to the light. All over the tree of life, you can find organisms that use molecules to convert light into electricity for photosynthesis or photosensation
Optogenetics is a neuromodulation technique employed in behavioral neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control the activity of individual neurons in living tissue—even within freely-moving animals—and to precisely measure the effects of those manipulations in real-time. Optogenetics is known for the high spatial and temporal resolutions that it provides, which allow for observation of individual neurons over a timecourse of milliseconds, but is primarily famous for its ability to precisely alter the activity of specific brain areas without directly affecting a subject's behavior.
One example is single-celled algae, which has a small eye spot -- a brown sphere -- that senses light, prompting hairlike structures called flagella to move and making the plant effectively swim. What if you could take a small piece of DNA from the algae and transplant it into a neuron so the neuron now produces a light-sensitive protein (and installs it on the cell's surface)? Then, Boyden and colleagues reasoned, you would have a neuron that could be turned on or off with light Optogenetics can be combined with automatic patch clamping to identify neurons of interest and then measure their activity the data from recording so many neurons will require a huge amount of computer storage; for recording the entire brain at once
An emerging set of methods enables an experimental dialogue with biological systems composed of many interacting cell types—in particular, with neural circuits in the brain. These methods are sometimes called “optogenetic” because they use light-responsive proteins (“opto-”) encoded in DNA (“-genetic”). Optogenetic devices can be introduced into tissues or whole organisms by genetic manipulation and be expressed in anatomically or functionally defined groups of cells. Two kinds of devices perform complementary functions: Light-driven actuators control electrochemical signals, while light-emitting sensors report them. Actuators pose questions by delivering targeted perturbations; sensors (and other measurements) signal answers.
Most isolated enhancers yield expression patterns that match behaviorally or physiologically relevant subsets of neurons only approximately; coverage is often insufficiently inclusive, inadequately exclusive, or both. This is not surprising: Cell identities are thought to be specified combinatorially, by using a regulatory syntax understood only incompletely. We know, for instance, a genetic label for “dopaminergic” in invertebrates; it is “a cell in which the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is turned on.” Exploiting this knowledge (and randomly some of the influence exerted on transgene expression by genomic context) made it possible to control remotely different subsets of dopaminergic neurons in the behaving fly
Dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain are the main source of dopamine (DA) in the mammalian central nervous system. Their loss is associated with one of the most prominent human neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD). Dopaminergic neurons are found in a 'harsh' region of the brain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, which is DA-rich and contains both redox available neuromelanin and a high iron content. Although their numbers are few, these dopaminergic neurons play an important role in the control of multiple brain functions including voluntary movement and a broad array of behavioral processes such as mood, reward, addiction, and stres
Activation of dopamine receptors in forebrain regions, for minutes or longer, is known to be sufficient for positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions. However, the firing rate of dopamine neurons is increased for only about 200 milliseconds following natural reward events that are better than expected, a response which has been described as a “reward prediction error” (RPE). Although RPE drives reinforcement learning (RL) in computational models, it has not been possible to directly test whether the transient dopamine signal actually drives RL. Here we have performed optical stimulation of genetically targeted ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice. We mimicked the transient activation of dopamine neurons that occurs in response to natural reward by applying a light pulse of 200 ms in VTA
Sam Houston Biotech Inc Genomics we are creating genomic-driven commercial solutions to revolutionize many industries. We have started by focusing on energy, but we imagine a future where our science could be used to produce a variety of products, from synthetically derived vaccines to prevent human diseases to efficient cost effective ways to create clean drinking water. The world is dependent on science and we're leading the way in turning novel science into life-changing solutions. What these companies are doing is taking medicine to the next level. From Alzheimer , Breast Cancer to Diabetes they are using your genes to determined if you have one or many diseases. This Process is called Genomics. Yes we are in the genomics revaluation. We know with breast cancer up to 50 percent of the patients get chemotherapy that do not need. In stead of lumping treatment decisions in to one modis of care Doctors now can pin point to a Cure. A example of this discovery of the genes that contribute to these pathophysiologies when deregulated by recurrent aberrations is important to understanding mechanisms of cancer formation and progression and to guide improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Electronic Medical Records Gennxeix is also key in a cure for breast cancer. What the fust is all about is scientist recognized something call Luminal subtypes. Luminal subtypes had the lowest overall mutation rate, but by contrast, had the largest number of genes observed to be significantly mutated. This suggests that each of the genes identified as significantly mutated in the Luminal subtypes is more likely to be important in fueling cancer progression. The Luminal subtypes are characterized by the specific expression signature of multiple so-called transcription-factor genes, including ESR1, GATA3, FOXA1, XBP1 and cMYB.
These genes have a complex interaction, cooperating in an orchestrated series of activations. GATA3 and FOXA1 are frequently mutated, but those mutations are mutually exclusive, meaning that mutations were observed in eitherGATA3 or FOXA1 but never in both. However, ERS1 and XBP1 are highly expressed but infrequently mutat. With Genomics we can separate breast cancer genes and break in to categories the different types of breast cancers. 1 Hormone receptor-positive disease, or tumors that have receptors for hormones on the surface of their cells, meaning those tumors can be treated with hormone-targeted therapy. 1 HER2-positive, referring to the over-expression of the gene HER2, a type of protein that can also be targeted. 1 "Triple-negative" disease, which lacks the hormone receptors - estrogen and progesterone - as well as the HER2 genes that are targeted by some of the newest, most successful treatments. Gennxeix discovered that some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer tended not respond to HER2-targeted therapies. Also, some patients with triple-negative breast cancers responded to therapies while others didn't. "We have been lumping things together that shouldn't be lumped together The new classifications - four types called HER2 "enriched," luminal A, luminal B and basal-like - categorize breast cancers by their genomic structure using a dizzying array of data points not previously available that have identified new pathways for the cancer to do its damage, making it possible for researchers to identify new places to target disease. What could be seen as the most promising development of this breast cancer study, researchers determined that some basal-like cancers had more in common with an aggressive form of ovarian cancer known as "serous" than with other types of breast cancer. Two other types of breast cancer, accounting for most cases of the disease, arise from the luminal cells that line milk ducts. These cancers have proteins on their surfaces that grab estrogen, fueling their growth. Just about everyone with estrogen-fueled cancer gets the same treatment. Some do well. Others do not. The genetic analysis divided luminal cancers into two distinct subtypes. The luminal A subtype had good prognoses while luminal B did not, suggesting that perhaps patients with luminal A tumors might do well with just hormonal therapy to block estrogen from spurring their cancers while luminal B patients might do better with chemotherapy in addition to hormonal therapy.
In some cases, genetic aberrations were so strongly associated with one or the other luminal subtype that they appeared to be the actual cause of the cancer. The better News is that Genomics is on the Clock. Genomics provide a faster cheaper more effective way to detect the Her2 gene by using Semiconductor Sequencing. A example of this technique is Sam Houston Biotech Semiconductor Sequencing. "Quantum Theory" In Action for Breast Cancer Patients. A polymerase is an enzyme whose central function is associated with polymers of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA. The primary function of a polymerase is the polymerization of new DNA or RNA against an existing DNA or RNA template in the processes of replication and transcription. In association with a Sam Houston Biotech also uses a Visualize Real-Time Breast Cancer Data using Signal Stochastic Resonance Units Neurons Detection and Analysis for Breast Cancer model after McCulloch-Pitts.Sam Houston Biotech computer-assisted diagnosing of breast cancer from mammograms. Hybrid Pharma works is a genetic network simulation trained with tumor incidence data from knockout experiments. Gennxeix Biotech uses Semiconductor Sequencing Chips that create a direct connection between Biochemical and digital information, bringing these two languages together. Hybrid's chips are designed like any other semiconductor chips. Pairing proprietary semiconductor technology with sequencing chemistry a nucleotide is incorporated into a strand of DNA by a polymerase, a hydrogen ion is released. Gennxeix Biotech used a high-density array of micro-machined wells for bioctechnology process in a massive way. Each well holds a different DNA template. Beneath the wells is an ion-sensitive layer and beneath that a proprietary Ion sensor. HER2 in many patients respond differently.
Genomics can be the GPS to Extend life in Breast Cancer Patients. formalin fixed, paraffin embedded techniques and Her-2 Approximately Where do you really come from? And how can this information Solve Breast Cancer? Approximately 30% of malignant breast cancers demonstrate overamplification of the human epidermal receptor type 2 (HER2) gene. HER-2 can be resistant to low-doses of anthracycline-based Sam Houston Biotech have demonstrated that they can be used to map DNase (deoxyribonuclease) DNA origins of replication. Sam Houston Biotech Recent progress in microarray technology has been related to the development of high resolution microarrays which can map genomic alterations and constitutional variants in DNA copy number at an extremely high resolution for Breast Cancer chemotherapy. formalin fixed, paraffin embedded techniques and Her-2The Good News is that science has advanced. Sections of microarray provide targets for parallel in situ detection of DNA, RNA and protein targets in each specimen on the array. The better News is that Genomics is on the Clock. Genomics provide a faster cheaper more effective way to detect the Her2 gene by using Semiconductor Sequencing. A example of this technique is Sam Houston Biotech Semiconductor Sequencing. "Quantum Theory" In Action for Breast Cancer Patients. A polymerase is an enzyme whose central function is associated with polymers of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA. The primary function of a polymerase is the polymerization of new DNA or RNA against an existing DNA RNA template in the processes of replication and transcription. In association with a Sam Houston Biotech also uses a Visualize Real-Time Breast Cancer Data using Signal Stochastic Resonance Units Neurons Detection and Analysis for Breast Cancer model after McCulloch-Pitts. Hybrid Pharma computer-assisted diagnosing of breast cancer from mammograms.
Sam Houston Biotech works is a genetic network simulation trained with tumor incidence data from knockout experiments.Sam Houston Biotechh uses Semiconductor Sequencing Chips that create a direct connection between Biochemical and digital information, bringing these two languages together. Hybrid's chips are designed like any other semiconductor chips. Pairing proprietary semiconductor technology with sequencing chemistry a nucleotide is incorporated into a strand of DNA by a polymerase, a hydrogen ion is released. Gennxeix Biotech used a high-density array of micro-machined wells for bioctechnology process in a massive way. Each well holds a different DNA template. Beneath the wells is an ion-sensitive layer and beneath that a proprietary Ion sensor. HER2 in many patients response differently. Genomics is the GPS to Extend life in Breast Cancer Patients.
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