The Gender Bias of Global Warming
Cross-posted from UN Women
Parker Liautaud is a polar explorer and climate change campaigner. He has
undertaken three expeditions to the North Pole and one to the South Pole. In
2013, he completed the fastest human-powered trek from the coast of Antarctica
to the South Pole. He studies Geology & Geophysics at Yale University and is a
Fellow at the Yale Climate & Energy Institute.
In September 1995, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action laid out a framework for empowering women and removing barriers to gender equality, emphasizing our obligation to pursue a world free from discrimination on the basis of gender. In the 20 years since then, in a seemingly different realm, the issue of climate change has spread beyond the laboratories, beyond the scientific journals, and beyond the legislative bodies of the world to become deeply rooted in public debate.
In some countries, the issue is bitterly controversial; in others, the
required course of action has never been clearer. Either way, what has become
clear in recent years is the extent to which people are already suffering. With
this comes the need to mitigate and adapt to new risks that previous generations
didn’t face. In an increasingly vulnerable world, women are often
disproportionately affected by climate-related risks.
I am not by any means an expert on issues of gender equality, but we don’t
have to go far to find abundant evidence connecting gender inequality and
climate change. The most recent report on the impacts of global warming from the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – which details the most
up-to-date knowledge on adaptation, vulnerability, and risk – points to
imbalances in the ways women and men differ in their vulnerability to climate
The IPCC report outlines how the effects of global warming are often felt
most severely by the poor who are exposed to exacerbated risks from low-quality
housing, a lack of access to services, and inadequate infrastructure. People
living in poverty are also particularly sensitive to declining crop yields and
increases in food prices, both of which are already occurring. As stated in the
Platform for Action, the vast majority of the approximately 1 billion people
living in poverty are women, a reality which itself leads to an inherent gender
bias in vulnerability to climate change. But beyond this are long-standing
inequalities that often put women – especially poor women – even more at risk
than their male counterparts.
Extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms register a higher
mortality rate globally for women than for men. This isn’t random: antiquated
gender roles often exclude women from decision-making processes, sometimes
preventing them from taking the best course of action in an emergency. The IPCC
cites studies discussing how many women in Nicaragua are expected to stay in
their home, even in dangerous situations, which can put them at risk in the
event of flooding, for example.
In the difficult aftermath of extreme weather events, higher rates of
physical violence against women often occur, notably in two of the most
economically developed countries in the world: the United States and Australia.
Furthermore, the report points to how a lack of institutional protection or
support can put women at risk when it comes to enduring individual extreme
weather events and adapting to changing conditions in the long-term, especially
where women have less access to information and community resources. These
resources could include information on how to respond in a dangerous, extreme
weather event, support for methods of adaptation to changing conditions, and
even education, which is a critical component in the empowerment of women.
Gender-based inequalities perpetuate the vulnerabilities faced by women in a
changing world, and yet, the above represent just a few examples. When it comes
to working towards equality between women and men, the human consequences of
climate change bring out lessons which demonstrate why the Platform for Action
is so important. This is a human rights issue, and one that is closely connected
to fundamental components of our society, such as education and health.
Yes, men also face differentiated risks, depending on the region. The
difference, however, is that these vulnerabilities aren’t caused by entrenched
societal inequalities. Many climate-related risks to women can be alleviated by
implementing societal changes that are already morally necessary, and which UN
Women is already working towards.
Global warming and gender inequality share an important characteristic. They
are both widespread, while having profound consequences on individuals and
communities. The interactions between the two are complex, and I could not
address them comprehensively in one article, even if I were qualified to do so.
To attempt to do so would be trivializing an important matter.
From a moral perspective, equality cannot be a choice or a luxury of the most
privileged societies. It must be a non-negotiable priority. In the face of
unprecedented global change, we strive to build a resilient world. This will
only be possible if we relentlessly pursue equality in every corner of our
For more information on Women and the Environment, check out the In Focus editorial package on the new Beijing+20 campaign website.